As the coronavirus pandemic rages across the globe, an even more insidious enemy lurks in the background: climate change. Some people continue to deny this, but as once-ice-covered landscapes slowly recede and coastal towns like Venice, Italy, threaten to be permanently submerged, the threat of climate change is growing. It’s getting harder and harder to ignore threats.
Meanwhile, people in certain regions are already feeling the severe effects of climate change in the form of extreme weather events such as hurricanes, flash floods, and large-scale fires. As a result, about 495,000 people died worldwide.
Climate change is also expected to have a negative impact on the global economy. According to a recent Oxford Economics report, the planet could warm by 2 degrees Celsius by 2050, reducing global gross domestic product by as much as 7.5%. Unsurprisingly, the poorest countries in Africa and Asia will be hit the hardest. In the long run, a temperature rise of 4 degrees Celsius by 2100 could reduce production by up to 30%. Current estimates of climate finance needs for residual loss and damage range from $290 billion to $580 billion in 2030.
Some of the world’s richest entrepreneurs are taking a stand and making headlines: Amazon founder Jeff Bezos announced on Monday that he would give nearly $800 million in grants to some of the country’s most prominent environmental groups. announced plans to release Called the Bezos Earth Fund, the $10 billion program is one of the largest philanthropic efforts in history and the largest ever by Bezos, the richest man in the world.
Bezos wrote on Instagram, “Over the past few months, I have been honored by an incredibly talented group of people whose life’s work is fighting climate change and its impact on communities around the world
Environmental and development organization Germanwatch’s Global Climate Risk Index analyzes the extent to which countries and regions are affected by weather-related events such as storms, floods and heat waves. Germanwatch has presented this report at the United Nations Climate Conference for over 14 years.
The organization found that between 1999 and 2018, Puerto Rico, Myanmar, and Haiti were the hardest-hit regions. It has low damage coping capacity and can take a long time to rebuild and recover. According to Germanwatch, the Climate Risk Index could also serve as a warning sign of existing vulnerabilities that could increase further as extreme events from climate change become more frequent or severe.
In the same report, Germanwatch detailed the countries most affected by extreme weather in 2018, providing insight into where they are most vulnerable to climate change.
In 2018, Japan was hit by three very strong extreme weather events: B. Heavy rain in July. Twice as much as he had before was measured each day on the wettest day in the country. Torrential rains caused flash floods and landslides, killing more than 200 people, damaging more than 5,000 homes, and displacing 2.3 million people. The total damage caused by the storm has exceeded $7 billion for him. The heat wave from mid-July to late August 2018 killed 138 people and hospitalized more than 70,000 people with heatstroke and heat stroke. Then Typhoon No. 20 made landfall in September, making it the most intense tropical cyclone Japan has experienced in more than 25 years. Jebi broke some historical records for sustained winds in Japan and caused over $13 billion in economic damage.
Japan is warming. The average age in Japan’s Temperature rises by about 1.0°C last century (Cruz et al., 2007). Japan too Experiences hot days more frequently (days if the maximum temperature exceeds 35°C) and The number of extremely cold days has decreased (JMA, 2005). Unfortunately, This change is even more pronounced in Hokkaido. Average Winter Temperatures Rise More Than the rising National average (1.33°C rise in Hokkaido) compared to the national average of 1.09°C) (JMA, 2006). No change in precipitation in Japan Very clear and clear precipitation Events are becoming more volatile. special, IPCC (2007) states that this is the general case. No significant upward or downward trend in 20th-century rainfall. However Variability (i.e. timing, seasonality, quantity, etc.). Increased for Japan. That kind of change can translate Changes to more unpredictable precipitation patterns. Make a plan for agriculture and water resources More difficult management. in some areas of Japan A clear downward trend in mean annual precipitation has been observed (Cruz et al., 2007). moreover, Significant reductions in volume have been made Duration and extent of snowfall and sea ice Southern Sea of Okhotsk (Ishizaka 2004; Hirota et al., 2006), also on the coast of Hokkaido (JMA, 2007a), although this is subject to significant change ocean currents and cannot be entirely attributed to climate Change. Satellite images of the Sea of Okhotsk Confirm that there was a 4.4% annual decline in Sea ice over the last 30 years (EORC, 2008). more Recent using average observable days Drifting sea ice has declined over the past four years from 87 to 65 days per year (JMA, 2008).
2. The Philippines
Typhoon Mangkhut already passed through the northern Philippines in September 2018 as a Category 5 typhoon. Mangkhut reached 270 kilometers per hour on landing, affecting more than 250,000 of her people across the country. About 59 people died, mostly from landslides caused by heavy rains.
Climate change is happening now. Evidence on view supports the fact that this variation cannot simply be explained by natural fluctuations. A recent scientific assessment confirms that the warming of this climate system since the mid-20th century is most likely due to human activity. Hence, we observe an increase in greenhouse gas concentrations due to human activities such as burning fossil fuels and changing land use. Current warming presents increasingly serious challenges for people and the environment and will continue to do so. Although some autonomous adaptations are currently taking place, more active adaptation plans should be considered to ensure sustainable development. What does it take for adaptation plans to be scientifically sound? Based on the baseline (or current) climate, we need to construct a plausible future climate. Climate scientists call this a climate change scenario. It is a projection of the climate system’s response to future emissions or concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols, simulated using climate models. Essentially, it describes the likelihood of future changes in climatic variables (temperature, precipitation, storms, wind, etc.) based on baseline climatic conditions. The consequences (projections) of climate change scenarios are an important step towards a better understanding of the complex climate, especially in the future. They show how our local climate will change dramatically if the international community does not act to effectively reduce greenhouse gas emissions.. I learned: “By acting boldly now, we can protect the future of our planet.”
One of the most surprising countries on the list is Germany, which experienced the hottest year on record due to a severe heatwave. The period from April to July 2018 was the hottest period ever recorded in Germany, with temperatures nearly 40 degrees Fahrenheit above average. According to a report, The heat wave killed more than 1,000 people. Drought also hit much of the country’s soil in October, after heavy January rainfall was followed by a fraction of normal summer rainfall. About 8,000 farmers have been asked to seek emergency federal assistance worth about $1.18 billion to offset their losses.
Tobias Fuchs, Head of Climate and Environment at the German Meteorological Office, said: “Climate change is in progress. Greenhouse gas emissions are increasing unchecked. The result is clear: Germany The average annual temperature has already increased by 1.6 °C, which is higher than anywhere else in the world. Winter precipitation has tripled and winter precipitation has increased by 27% In the worst case, average temperatures in Germany are expected to rise by 2.3-3°C by mid-century compared to the early industrial age. If greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise and level off at very high levels by the end of the 21st century, temperatures here could rise by 3.9-5.5 degrees. ”
Germany’s 2021 Climate Impacts and Risks Assessment explored over 100 consequences of climate change and its interactions, identifying about 30 of them as requiring very urgent action. These include fatal heat stress, soil water shortages, and more frequent low water levels, especially in cities, with severe impacts on all ecosystems, agriculture, forestry, and freight transport. We also investigated the economic damage caused by heavy rains, flash floods, and flooding of buildings, and changes in species such as the spread of pathogens and pests due to a gradual rise in temperature.
So far, only a few areas in Germany have been severely affected by heat, drought, or heavy rains. More regions will face these impacts by mid-century if severe climate change occurs. The greatest climate change compared to today will occur in western and southern Germany. Extreme weather occurs most frequently in the southwest and east. Rivers and river basins can be subject to water-specific risks such as low water and high water. On the coast, the risk of sea-level rise will increase significantly in the second half of this century. In the event of severe climate change, all of Germany will become a hotspot of climate change risk by the end of the century.
In January 2018, Madagascar was hit by Cyclone Ava, which hit the eastern part of the island, flooding cities and destroying buildings. The Ava reached a top speed of 118 mph and killed 51 people. Ava was followed by Cyclone Elia Kim in March, which affected more than 15,000 of his people, including 17 deaths and the temporary displacement of nearly 6,300. Cyclone Ava and Eliakim jointly evacuated her 70,000 people.
According to Global Carbon Project data, Madagascar accounts for just over 0.01% of the world’s annual carbon footprint each year. Cumulatively, between 1933 and 2019, the country produced less than 0.01% of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is currently causing serious changes to the global climate. One such impact of these changes has been Madagascar’s worst drought in 40 years.
Madagascar’s drought and famine can be directly attributed to the impacts of climate change, said WFP Executive Director David Beasley. In addition to this, an unexpected sandstorm “buried fields and ruined all possibilities for agriculture,” said Frances Kennedy, a WFP spokeswoman, in an email to Quartz. More than 60% of people in southern Madagascar are “small farmers who have lost their livelihoods and their only source of food due to unpredictable weather,” she said.
Scientists have spent years analyzing climate patterns to predict such impacts on southern Africa. But that doesn’t necessarily make it easier to forestall such catastrophes. she said. “Climate impacts are starting on across southern Africa.”
Angola is another example of a country experiencing food shortages as a result of climate change, Kennedy said. and fled to Namibia. Cyclones that originate in the Indian Ocean and strike the southeastern coast of the continent (Mozambique) have become frequent, and like Madagascar, Angola and Mozambique contribute little to global emissions.
Famines are not conflicts and can be directly attributed to climate change, which is why it is better known. I was. “They don’t burn fossil fuels, but they bear the brunt of climate change.”
The annual monsoon season, which lasts from June to September, hit India hard in 2018, especially in Kerala. 324 people drowned or were buried in flood-induced landslides. This is his worst number in 100 years. More than 220,000 people have been forced from their homes, and 20,000 homes and 80 dams have been destroyed. Damage amounted to $2.8 billion. Cyclone Titli and Gajah also hit the east coast of India in October 2018 and in November. Cyclone Titli, with winds of up to 150 kilometers per hour, killed at least eight people and cut power to nearly 450,000 people
A report released by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) said India will be hit by more cyclones in the coming decades, resulting in more frequent and intense heat waves, extreme rains, and instability, among other weather-related hazards. warns that it will suffer from severe monsoons.
The report “Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis” is the first part of the IPCC’s Sixth Assessment Report (AR6) and provides the latest update on the state of the Earth’s climate and its impacts on the planet and on many forms of life. is the evaluation.
For the Indian subcontinent, the report said, “hot extremes are increasing and cold extremes are decreasing, and these trends will continue in the coming decades.”
Experts say India and South Asia in general are particularly vulnerable to climate change.
“The threat of climate change is real. The danger is imminent and the future devastating. This message from the IPCC report confirms what we already know and what we can see in the world around us,” said an environmentalist and Delhi-based scientific Sunita Narain, director of the Environmental Center, said.
6. Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka, an island nation off the coast of India, was hit by heavy monsoon rains in May 2018, particularly affecting 20 districts on the south and west coasts. The provinces of Galle and Kalutara were the hardest hit, with Galle receiving more than 6 inches of rain in 24 hours. The average rainfall for this district is usually 11 inches throughout May. At least 24 people have died, more than 170,000 have been affected and nearly 6,000 have been displaced.
Sri Lanka is a small island nation located between latitudes 6 and 10 and longitude 80 and 82 in the Indian Ocean, covering approximately 65,000 square kilometers (km2). The island consists of a mountainous area in the central south and a surrounding coastal plain. Sri Lanka’s climate is humid and temperate, ideal for forest growth. In the past, almost all of the country was covered with forests. Over the last 100 years, more than two-thirds of this biodiverse forest area has been cleared for human use. Nevertheless, it remains rich in natural resources, which along with a vibrant culture contribute to the country’s thriving tourism industry. About a quarter of Sri Lanka’s population is believed to live in the metropolitan area of Colombo, the commercial capital. However, official statistics show that Sri Lanka’s urban population is relatively small, with him reported at 18.6% in 2019. Sri Lanka’s high temperatures, unique and complex hydrological regimes, and exposure to extreme climate change make it highly vulnerable to climate change.
Seasonal rains affected the African countries of Kenya and Rwanda, as well as other countries in East Africa. From March to July 2018, Kenya received almost two times as much rain as the normal rainy season. Major rivers in the central highlands flooded, affecting 40 out of 47 counties, killing 183 people, injuring 97 people, and displacing more than 300,000 people.
Nairobi (Thomson Reuters Foundation) – Climate change will hit tea production in Kenya, the world’s largest tea supplier, and threaten the livelihoods of millions of plantation workers, says British charity Christian Aid. warned Monday.
This report examined how changes in temperature and rainfall patterns in the tea-growing regions of Kenya, India, Sri Lanka, and China affect the quality and yield of the world’s most popular tea.
Along with tourism and remittances, tea is one of Kenya’s most important sources of foreign exchange earnings, employing about 3 million people.
However, in the East African country that produces nearly half of the tea consumed in the UK, areas with optimal and moderate tea growing conditions are projected to shrink by around 25% and 40% respectively by 2050. , said the report.
Climate change is also making it increasingly difficult for tea farmers to venture into new areas previously uncultivated, she said, adding that the decline in production is already being felt locally. rice field. “We used to have good conditions here and a great tea harvest. As the climate changed, tea production on my farm declined,” said a tea farmer in Kericho, in the highlands of western Kenya. Richard Koskei, 72, said.
“We have no other recourse here. People in my community are urging us to phase out tea cultivation as jobs will be lost and tea consumers may see price increases. will consider.”
Farmers have observed changes in rainfall patterns, distribution, and reduced yields associated with climate change. This is according to a United Nations survey of 700 growers in all seven of his tea-growing regions in Kenya.
More than 40% of his respondents said they had noticed changes in wet and dry seasons leading to changes in the planting season, and 35% cited drought. Kenya is highly vulnerable to climate change, with average annual temperatures projected to increase by 2.5 degrees Celsius between 2000 and 2050, says Christian Aid’s report.
Precipitation becomes more intense and unpredictable. Even a modest increase in drought would pose major challenges to food security and water availability, especially in the arid and semi-arid regions of northern and eastern Kenya, he added.
Heavy rains in March 2018 also hit Rwanda, causing flooding along the Sebeya River. About 25,000 people in 5,000 households were affected, their homes destroyed or damaged by landslides and floods. The floods exacerbated cholera cases and triggered an epidemic of mosquito-borne chikungunya virus, causing fever, joint pain, and skin rashes.
Most of Rwanda’s population is very poor and lives in rural areas. As such, they are directly dependent on natural resources such as water availability and soil quality. In addition, sectors important to Rwanda’s economy are highly climate-sensitive, such as agriculture, forestry, and fisheries. The impact of climate change will therefore have a significant impact on Rwanda’s economy and population. (same as above)
REMA predicts that the rainy season will become shorter and more intense.
Most regions of Rwanda are expected to see more intense rainfall with an increase in average precipitation, especially during the rainy season. This increases the intensity and frequency of floods and landslides. More intense and frequent droughts are expected in the south and southeast. (NAPA-Rwanda, 2006; IIED, 2013).
Average temperatures are expected to rise to 2.5°C by 2050 and 4°C by 2080, with a high-altitude spread of malaria viruses likely (MINIRENA, 2011; compare 1990).
Cold days and cold nights are expected to decrease by 5-10% (depending on the scenario).
Depending on the scenario, the number of hot days and hot nights is expected to increase by 12-58% (hot days) and 31-86% (hot nights) (CSC, 2013).
Our northern neighbors started 2018 with extremely cold temperatures of -49 degrees Fahrenheit – the lowest in 100 years. More were forced to evacuate. Record-breaking temperatures in April melted heavy snowpacks and ruptured river banks. The same region suffered the worst wildfire season on record, resulting in 2,117 wildfires consuming the region, filling western Canada with smoke and air quality among the worst in the world. , 16,000 people were evacuated.
Canada’s climate is already changing. Rising temperatures, changing precipitation patterns, extreme weather events, and rising sea levels are just a few of the changes that are already impacting many aspects of our lives.
Climate change will continue and in many cases will intensify in the coming decades. This will have a significant impact on Canadian communities through economics, social welfare (health, culture, etc.), and the environment. To build resilience through adaptation, reduce the risks and costs associated with climate change impacts, and support informed decision-making, we need to understand these impacts and the options available. Because of its northern location, Canada’s climate is changing twice as fast as the global average. This makes adaptation particularly important to ensure that certain sectors in Canada are more resilient and able to take advantage of the impacts of climate change. Explore Canadian Natural Resources research and efforts to learn more about climate change and possible adaptation strategies in northern Canada, coastal regions, and Canadian forests.
Despite the succession of good adaptation strategies, significant gaps remain in Canada’s climate change preparedness. We see the consequences of natural disasters such as floods and forest fires as a result of extreme weather events. Taking swift action to adapt is critical to Canada’s economic and social well-being. This includes both working from home and looking beyond borders at the impacts of climate change, adaptation, and mitigation occurring elsewhere in the world. This can have a significant impact on food availability at home, trade, and immigration.
Fiji was hit by three cyclones from February to April 2018. With sustained peak winds of up to 78 miles per hour, Cyclone Gita invaded southern Fiji, causing over $1 million in damage and the evacuation of 288 people. Two weeks after her, Cyclone Josie and subsequent severe flooding killed eight people and displaced more than 2,000. Keni was the last cyclone of the season to make landfall in April and impacted the Kadavu region as a Category 3 tropical storm. About 9,000 people had to leave their homes.
Fiji, like its South Pacific neighbors, remains one of the smallest contributors to global CO2 emissions but faces some of the most devastating consequences of extreme weather patterns.
According to Fiji’s National Climate Policy, global sea level change is projected to more than double her by the end of this century. Since 1993, Fiji has experienced a sea level rise of 6 millimeters (0.2 inches) per year, above the global average. Rapid sea level rise and accompanying seawater intrusion are causing some of the island nations to become uninhabitable, due to increased coastal tidal violence.
Fiji’s future depends on combating the impacts of climate change. This November, the world’s attention will turn to Fiji, driving a global agenda to reduce carbon emissions. As President of the 23rd Climate Change Conference (COP23), the Government of Fiji will continue its steadfast fight to address one of the greatest challenges threatening the country, the region, and the planet as a whole.
Rising sea levels, rising temperatures, and a stronger El Niño pattern combine to make the island susceptible to deadly food- and water-borne diseases. Fiji’s two main islands have seen fewer cool nights and more warm days since 1942. Tropical cyclones are projected to decrease in frequency and increase in intensity. These changing weather patterns have exacerbated Fiji’s vulnerability to viral disease outbreaks. Fiji had a drought-induced diarrheal disease outbreak in 2011, fought a post-flood leptospirosis outbreak in 2012, and contained a dengue fever outbreak in 2013.
Extreme weather is threatening Fijian livelihoods and impacting island ecosystems on land and in the sea. Saltwater intrusion from coastal flooding is destroying farmland, disrupting staple food supplies for the Fiji economy, and forcing communities to relocate to safer areas. The damage suffered by Fiji’s most populous island, Viti Levu, is worth about $52 million annually, or 4% of Fiji’s GDP. In 2012, residents of Bnidogoroa were the first to relocate due to the effects of rising tides, erosion of agricultural land, and increased flooding.